National Institute of Technology, India
Title: Gelatin chitosan and bioactive nano ceramic based composite scaffold for orthopedic application
Biography: Sudip Dasgupta
Gelatin, chitosan and bioactive nanoceramic based composite scaffold with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the physicochemical, mechanical and osteogenic properties of 3D porous scaffold by incorporation of bioactive ceramic phase into biopolymer matrix with variation in composition in the prepared scaffolds. Bioactive nanoceramics such as hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and 58 S bioactive glass were synthesized and used in different concentration varying between 10-30 wt.% to prepare GCH, GCB and GCT scaffolds. GCH scaffold having HA:Chi:Gel ratio of 28:42:30 with 78% average porosity showed a pore size distribution between 75-100 μm and exhibited a compressive strength of 3.45 MPa, which is within the range of that exhibited by cancellous bone. GCH 30 showed the highest average compressive strength of 3.46 MPa whereas the lowest average compressive strength of 2.2 MPa was registered by GCB 30 scaffold. Higher cellular activity was observed in GCB 30 scaffold as compared to GCB 0 scaffold suggesting the fact that 58S bioactive glass nanoparticles addition into the scaffold promoted better cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. A higher degree of lamelliopodia and filopodia extensions and better spreading behavior of MSCs were observed in FESEM micrographs of MSC cultured GCB 30 scaffold. Scaffolds prepared from 30 wt% 58S nano bioactive glass exhibited the highest bioactivity among all the scaffolds as evident from MTT assay, RUNX-2 and osteocalcin expression from mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the scaffold. Moreover, by reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR) analysis, it was observed that the expression of osteogenic gene markers from cultured MSCs were relatively high in GCB30 as compared to GCH30 and GCT30 composite scaffolds. In coherence with the in vitro appearance, histological analysis and fluorochrome study in a rabbit tibia model showed a significantly greater amount of new bone formation in GCB30 compared to another composite scaffold.