Day 1 :
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil
Time : 09:00-09:35
Celia Landmann Szwarcwald is a Professor of the National School of Public Health and Senior Researcher of the Institute of Communication and Information Science and Technology in Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She completed PhD in Public Health, in 1993, National School of Public Health, and her Postdoctoral studies in spatial statistical analysis in 1995, Southern Methodist University, TX, EUA. She works in the areas of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Health Information. She has over 100 articles published in national and international journals and has coordinated several surveys in Brazil. He is currently coordinating the National Health Survey.
Introduction: This study proposes a methodology for estimating maternal mortality rates (MMR) in Brazil using vital data (deaths and live-births) reported to the Ministry of Health information systems. Methods: The proposed methodology considers three different correction factors: under-reporting of live births; under-reporting of deaths among women of child bearing age and misclassification of maternal deaths. Analysis of investigation of deaths among women of reproductive age provided the proportion of misclassification of maternal deaths. Using this method, the MMR was estimated in the period 2008-13. Previous estimates of the MMR in the 1990-2005 were used to obtain temporal trends. Results: In the period 2008-2013, the proportion of investigated deaths increased from 47% to 61% resulting in the reduction of misclassified maternal deaths. The MMR decreased from 66.9 to 57.4 per 100,000 live births. The highest MMR was evidenced in 2009 (73.1 per 100,000 live births) probably due to the H1N1 influenza epidemic that occurred in the same year. Considering previous MMR estimates in 1990, 1996 and 2005, the annual rate of decrease of the MMR was 3.7%. Due to the improvement in mortality reporting, the comparison of the MMR calculated with corrected and informed vital data showed more pronounced decreasing trends after correcting the data. Conclusions: Despite the downward trend during the period 1990 to 2013, the results of this study indicate that maternal mortality rates in Brazil are still unacceptably high and inconsistent with the great coverage of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance.
University of Newcastle, Australia
Keynote: Differential regulation of cytotoxicity pathway discriminating between HIV, HCV mono and co-infection identified by transcriptome profiling of PBMCs
Time : 09:35-10:10
Jingqin Wu has completed her PhD in 2009 from the University of Sydney and is a Research Fellow at the Universtiy of Newcastle, Australia. She specialises in genome-wide association and transcriptome analyses of schizophrenia and infectious dieseases (HIV and HCV). She is a NHMRC early carrer fellow and has published more than 35 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of Austin Virology and Retro Virology.
There has not been a study focusing on the global dysregulations of biological pathways in PBMCs from HIV, HCV mono- and co-infected individuals. This study aimed at identifying the transcriptome distinctions of PBMCs between these patient groups. Genome-wide transcriptomes of PBMCs from 10 HIV/HCV co-infected patients, 7 HIV+ patients, 5 HCV+ patients, and 5 HIV/HCV sero-negative healthy controls were analyzed using Illumina microarray. Pairwise comparisons were performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), followed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to detect the dysregulated biological pathways between HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection. 41, 262, and 44 DEGs with fold change>1.5 and FDR (false discovery rate) <0.05 for the comparisons of HCV versus co-infection, HIV versus co-infection and HIV versus HCV were identified, respectively. Significantly altered pathways (FDR<0.05), featured by those involved in immune system, signaling transduction, and cell cycle, were detected. The differential regulation of cytotoxicity pathway discriminated between HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection (up-regulated in the former versus the latter group: co-infection versus HIV or HCV, HIV versus HCV; FDR <0.001~0.019). The cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway was down-regulated in co-infection versus either HCV (FDR=0.003) or HIV (FDR=0.028). For the comparison of HIV versus HCV, the cell cycle (FDR=0.016) and WNT signaling (FDR=0.006) pathways were up- and down-regulated, respectively. The differential regulation of cytotoxicity pathway may reflect the distinct patterns of virus-host cell interactions. Between HIV and HCV, the altered cell cycle and WNT signaling pathways may suggest the different impact of HIV and HCV on cell proliferation and differentiation.
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, India
Keynote: Discovering multiple novel magic bullets towards combinatorial cure of malaria without the shadow of resistance
Time : 10:10-10:45
Dinkar Sahal’s laboratory epitomizes a vibrant atmosphere for both design and discovery of novel antibiotic peptides and antimalarial drugs. The foundations for understanding the mechanisms of action and discovery of the origins of potency, synergy among antibiotics and broad spectrum of action of antibiotic peptides has been laid in his laboratory. Likewise discovery of novel drugs against drug resistant malaria is a major passion of his laboratory. He has published more than 70 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a Reviewer and an Editorial Board Member of different journals.
The parasite that causes malaria is extremely ancient. The disease it causes has been tormenting mankind for a long time and the image of a child dying of malaria every minute continues to haunt us even today. Our handling of malaria for the last hundred years has taught us that the malaria parasite which relishes riding on the invertebrate mosquito vector to fly from one vertebrate victim to another vertebrate host is not easy to control. Its ancient heritage appears to have taught the parasite to emerge with heightened vengeance whenever we have challenged it with either ill equipped vaccines or misused drugs. Today’s malaria parasite is well equipped to conquer almost all antimalarial drugs through resistance and we have miles to go before we have credible vaccines against malaria. However, innovations in chromatography and high throughput screening platforms offer us immense possibilities of discovering new drugs and my talk will present a glimpse of how in collaboration with several co-scientists we are exploring both nature and chemically generated molecular diversity to identify novel pharmacophores against malaria. Although we are exploring those magic bullets that were famously enunciated by Paul Ehrlich, we are aware that such magic bullets work like magic only for the short duration when the pathogen has not yet developed resistance. Hence I shall show how consumption of ancillary molecules together with the magic bullet molecule may be important for (a) greater potency in synergy combinations, (b) improved pharmacokinetics and (c) for delaying the advent of drug resistance.