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10th World Congress on Healthcare & Technologies

Lisbon, Portugal

Cristina Gomes

Cristina Gomes

FLACSO Mexico | Mexico

Title: Evaluation of affirmative policies in health: Discourses, attitudes and practices about racism, inequalities and actions against racism in Brazil


Biography: Cristina Gomes


Statement of the Problem: Racism in Brazil is structural, reflects more than four centuries of slavery and it is reproduced in institutions and civil society, in daily and family life. After 13 years promoting the inclusion of black population in public services this research evaluates the implementation of the National Policy for Integral Health of Black Population in health services in the municipality of Camacari, State of Bahia, Brazil.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A triangulated methodology was applied, including a quantitative Survey, participant observation, in-depth interviews and focal groups with workers of public and private health services. The questionnaire included the staff profile: socio-demographic, family and work conditions, and their perceptions, attitudes and practices on racism and race inequalities and policies.

Findings: The workers recognize that racism exists in Brazil. However, their speeches indicate the predominance of a modern or subtle type of racism, based more on social prejudices than on color, mainly among high school professionals, such as physicians, nurses social workers, etc. Less educated workers, like technicians, receptionists and watchmen present higher proportions of prejudices based on color, or traditional racism, compared to the more educated workers.

Conclusion & Significance: The results adhere to the cultural approach on racism as ideology (Miles and Brown, 2003), associated to the level of education. However affirmative policies are rejected by most workers regardless of their level of education. Recognizing that racism, inequalities and injustices exist does not allow people to assume a commitment to act collectively to compensate or eliminate the effects of these injustices in their daily life or work, or to support actions to promote real equality.


Recent Publications

  1. ALENCAR, José A.  Ponha-se no seu lugar: Resenha de DANIEL, G. Reginald. Machado de Assis – Multiracial identity. Philadelphia: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2012, 330p.   Fundação Casa de Rui Barbosa Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil. Machado de Assis em linha, Rio de Janeiro.  v. 6, n. 11, p. 134 - 139, junho 2013.
  2. ARAÚJO, Carla L. F. (2010) O quesito cor/raça em formulários de saúde: a visão dos profissionais de saúde. Revista Enfermagem - UERJ, v. 18, n. 2, p. 241-246.
  3. ARAÚJO, Edna M. (2009) A utilização da variável raça/cor em Saúde Pública. Interface-Comunicação, Saúde, Educação, v. 13, n. 31, p. 383-394, 2009.
  4. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo, (2006) Racism without racists : color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States / Eduardo Bonilla-Silva.—2nd ed.
  5. BOYLE, Kevin. (2005). Dimensions of Racism. Proceedings of a Workshop to commemorate the end of the United Nations Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. New York and Geneva. OHCHR and UNESCO
  6. BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde (2007). Política nacional de saúde integral da população negra. Brasília. Editora do Ministério da Saúde.
  7. BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde (2005). A saúde da população negra e o SUS: ações afirmativas para avançar na equidade. Brasília: Editora do Ministério da Saúde.
  8. CEBES. (2013) Saúde em Debate. Rio de Janeiro, Revista do Centro Brasileiro de Estudos em Saúde.  v. 37, n. 99, out/dez
  9. MILES R, BROWN M (2003) Racism. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. London and New York. 2nd ed.
  10. OSORIO, Rafael Guerreiro. (2003) O Sistema Classificatório de “Cor ou Raça” DO IBGE. Texto para discussão 996, IPEA. Brasília.

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