Ibrahim Awad Eljack Ibrahim is Assistant professor of Family and Community Medicine Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. He was the Director of Department of Organizations and Voluntary Agencies, Khartoum State Ministry of Health, Sudan during 2012- August 2013. He was also the Director of Planning Department and Deputy Director of Primary Health Care General Directorate, Khartoum State Ministry of Health, Sudan , Responsible for Planning, Quality management, Researches, Training and Monitoring and Evaluation activities for the Primary Health Care in Khartoum State, Ministry of Health, 2008-2012.
Summary Background: Hymenolepis nana is among the most common intestinal parasitic infections causing a public health threat in poor communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of H. nana infections and associated risk factors among preschool children of displacement communities in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2013 in displacement camps, Khartoum state, Sudan. A simple random sample of preschool children from the displacement camps, aged between 1 and 5 years, were included. Information was collected by presenting a questionnaire and taking 500 fresh stool specimens, which were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, using direct saline and formal-ether concentration techniques. Results: The prevalence of H. nana was determined to be 32.6% (163/500), 95% CI (28.5% e36.9%). Infections of H. nana were more prevalent among males than females, and this association was statistically significant (P < 0.001, OR Z 2.125, 95% CI Z 1.452e3.108). H. nana infections were significantly prevalent among the older age group (2.6e5.0 years) (P < 0.001, OR Z 2.909, 95% CI Z 1.914e4.420). Approximately 76.7% of infected preschool children had diarrhea and it was significantly associated with H. nana infection (P < 0.001, OR Z 9.45, 95% CI Z 6.10e14.64). None of the preschool children had access to a clean water supply. No significant association was found between use of latrines and infections of H. nana (P Z 0.56, OR Z 0.880, 95% CI Z 0.73e1.763). Conclusions: There was a high prevalence rate of H. nana infection among preschool children of displacement camps in Khartoum state, Sudan. Being male, aged between 2.6 and 5.0 years, and having diarrhea were identified as important risk factors for H. nana infection. Measures including health education, environmental hygiene, water supply and treatment should be taken into account to reduce the high prevalence of H. nana.
Miss Maitali Ganesan has ten years of experience working in one of Singapore's highly regarded medical institutions, the Singapore General Hospital. On the third year of her tenure as a nurse she was offered by Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore to pursue her Diploma in Health Sciences, where she graduated and attained Diploma with Merit which is awarded by the educational institution only to those with outstanding academic performance. She was also in the Director's list consecutively for 3 years from 2008 to 2010 for 5 semesters. Apart from excelling in academics, she was also awarded the Gold Certificate of Achievement in Co-Curriculum Activities. She was recognised by SINDA for her outstanding performance in attaining Diploma in Health Science (Nursing) and was awarded the prestigious SINDA Excellence Award. Her exemplary performance as a nurse also landed her a scholarship from Singapore General Hospital to pursue her bachelor degree in Nursing at National University of Singapore. Upon completion of her bachelors programme, she was offered admission by National University of Singapore to continue to her honours programme. She has worked in ward setting under orthopaedic and colorectal disciplines as a nurse.
BACKGROUND: Nurses play an important role in implementing medical and nursing educational interventions for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients as to reduce or prevent complications of the disease. With increasing number of CKD patients both locally and globally, it contributes to increased healthcare utilizations. Even though current literature suggested that appropriate nursing management and patient education are required to meet specific demands of patients with CKD; limitations of evidence and literature had demonstrated on the aspects of nurses’ challenges with regards to the process delivering patient education. AIMS: The aim of the study is to explore and understand nurse’s perceptions in respect to patient education for CKD in Singapore. The research questions were directed towards understanding of patient education process, identifying barriers facilitators of patient education and both nurses and patient’s perceptions of patient education. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design using semi-structured face to face interview was conducted to gather contextual data. Sample sizes of 20 registered nurses working in a renal ward setting at one of tertiary hospitals in Singapore were recruited until saturation is reached. The participants were selected using purposive sampling technique and was based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The interview process lasted for 20 to 60 minutes and was audio-taped. Audio-taped interviews were transcribed in English. Thematic analysis was employed. RESULTS: Nurses have a key role in implementing medical educational interventions for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients while employing effective management strategies to reduce or prevent complications of the disease. The main central concerns were knowledge, level self confidence level, and time availability with their patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results enable healthcare professionals to understand the significance to maintain and improve patient education and management for patients who are clinically diagnosed with CKD. In addition, it would also provide an understanding of expectations, clinical expertise, challenges, difficulties and scope of practice of renal ward nurse. As limited evidence from current literature was noted on the essential components of patient education, this study would give an opportunity to identify the core teachings that should be implemented. It could also be a good basis for policy-making in hospitals. It could be a guide for future studies such as education for other chronic conditions or educational program interventions