Day 3 :
- Infectious Disease and Prevention
Bond University, Australia
University of Venda, South Africa
Title: Professional nurses views regarding stigma and discrimination in the care of HIV and AIDS patients in rural hospitals of the Limpopo province
Time : 10:00-10:25
Bumani S Manganye is a Lecturer in the Department of Public Health of University of Venda. He has 10 years of experience as an Operational Manager (Nursing) of the PHC facility in Vhembe District. He completed his MPH in 2010 and currently doing PhD at the University of Venda.
The aim of the study was to determine the views of professional nurses on the manifestations of HIV and AIDS stigma and discrimination and their influence on the quality of care rendered to people living with HIV and AIDS in three rural hospitals of Limpopo province, South Africa. The study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population included all professional nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council who were working with confirmed HIV-positive patients in those three hospitals and had received specialized training in Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), Antiretroviral (ARV), Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) and couple counseling. A purposive sampling method was used to select both the wards and participants, based on set criteria. A total of 9 wards (6 adult medical and 3 maternity) and 37 participants were selected. Group discussions, semi-structured and key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using a combination of data heir wards and regarded these as bad and improper care of HIV-positive patients. Behavior included leaving care analysis guidelines from different sources. Results revealed that professional nurses were aware of the existence of HIV and AIDS stigma and discrimination of HIV patients to junior members of staff with limited skills and knowledge of HIV and AIDS; showing HIV-positive patients that their disease was dangerous and contagious; judgmental behavior towards and stereotyping of HIV-positive patients; and regarding patients with HIV and AIDS as uncooperative and problematic in the wards.
Sydney District Nursing, Australia
Title: Development of an online HIV nursing module for nurses with limited experience caring for people living with HIV
Time : 10:25-10:50
Denise Cummins has been working as a Clinical Expert in the area of HIV disease for over 20 years, in acute and ambulatory care settings. Currently, she is working in community health. She has a Master’s in Public Health and perusing her PhD at the University of Sydney. She has published 19 articles and has been the primary investigator in several research projects. She has experience developing and facilitating workshops in Thailand, Nepal, Papua New Guinea and Myanmar in a voluntary capacity and was co-author for Asia Pacific Manual and Training Resource on counseling skills for HIV support workers.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved long back. At present, hospitals admissions have declined as People Living with HIV (PLHIV) have improved HIV health outcomes. But now as PLHIV are ageing they are developing other health conditions which may require hospital admission. Some nurses may not have experience in providing care to PLHIV, with limited knowledge of HIV infection which could impact negatively on patient care. During educational sessions to nurses, knowledge was varied like 37% thought insects transmit HIV, 17% from sharing a cup with a PLHIV, 12% said you could tell someone had AIDS because they looked tired and ill and 71% were unaware of post exposure prophylaxis for an exposure to HIV. This presentation will discuss the background and development of an online HIV nursing module, by nurses for nursing staff and undergraduate nurses to access whilst on clinical placement at a large area health service in Sydney, Australia. The module provides a brief history of the epidemic and HIV nursing, relevant HIV information, infection control and first aid, case studies and media of PLHIV sharing their stories, as many PLHIV have experienced stigma and discrimination in the health system. A pre and post knowledge test will ascertain evidence of change in knowledge and provide information for future areas of education. It is believed that this online education which will be accessible to a large number of nurses will lead to improved HIV knowledge and confidence of nurses providing care for the PLHIV.
AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, India
Time : 11:30-11:55
Sukdev Nayak is the Past President of Indian Association of Palliative Care and a member Review Committee, Indian Journal of Palliative care and a member, Curriculum Development committee in Palliative Medicine, also a member of abstract review committee, World Cancer Congres, Melbourne, 2014. He has received 15 fellowships from WHO/UICC etc. He is the life member of ISA, ISSP, IAPC, IMA, Association of UICC Fellows, Association of British Scholars and National Organization of Tobacco Control. He was the Ex-Director of AHR Cancer Centre. He is presently Professor and Head, Anesthesiology, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar.
Elderly population in India is rising and is projected to further increase rapidly than many other developed countries in the coming decades. Dementia in elderly is emerging as a major public health problem due to increase in prevalence and lack of effective disease modifying treatment. As human being gets older, changes occur in all parts of the body including the brain. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia in the elderly. It is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time. Loss of short term memory is the first sign, following with language problems, decline in non-memory aspects of cognition, such as word finding, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgment, may signal gradual progress, ultimately leading to death. Although the speed of progression can vary, the average life expectancy following diagnosis is three to nine years. It starts in the mid 60 and is very common cause of death in elderly next to cancer and heart disease. The cause for most Alzheimer's cases is still mostly unknown except for 1% to 5% of cases where genetic differences have been identified. Performance measures of cognitively normal group steeply worsened with increasing complexity. With receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, patients with mild Alzheimer's disease were poorly differentiated from cognitively normal group according to their Tower of Hanoi performance. This is a progressive disease, which are the most common form of dementia and the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. While there is no cure for Alzheimer’s, research suggests yoga and meditation may play a role in the treatment. There are studies to suggest that memory loss may be reversed, yoga and meditation were included as part of a complex, 36-point therapeutic program. Moreover yoga and meditation may help Alzheimer’s and dementia patients and their caregivers socialize and feel better. Our experience: We tried yoga for 100 Alzheimer’s disease in our palliative care OPD. The control group was asked to watch spiritual discourses in TV and the test group was asked to practice simple yoga and pranayam procedures. The cognitive function was evaluated at 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 weeks. There was significant improvement in cognitive functions.
Qatar University, UAE
Time : 11:55-12:20
Nada Eltaiba has a PhD in Social Work and Social Policy, a Master’s degree in Counseling and a BA in Social Work. She has an extensive experience as a social work practitioner, researcher and as an educator. She worked as an academic at The University of Western Australia, Curtin University of Technology in Australia and at Al-Balqa Applied University in Jordan. She also worked as a practitioner in various settings in mental health, cross- cultural practices, families, and refugees. Her main research interest is in mental health, cross-cultural practice, ethics and refugees.
Appreciation of religion and spirituality is considered a fundamental source of insight into human beings coping with challenges related to mental health problems. For the majority of Muslims, religious beliefs are essential in their ways of coping with various psychological problems. Islamic texts provide a rich context within which to cope with difficulties. This paper aims to discuss the concept of hope and change in relation to religious and spiritual healing in the Islamic texts the Qur’an and the Hadith. Content analysis is the method applied in this research. Hope and the changing of the self are considered important values of the journey of people with individuals with mental health problems. The paper will provide some implication for practice.
Taibah University, Saudi Arabia
Time : 11:55-12:20
Fatma Jobran is currently an assistance professor at Taibah University, Department of Interior Design. Previously, she was the Chair of the Academic and Professional Development Commission at Texas Tech University Graduate Student Advisory Council (GSAC), April 2014-presnt. Her current research interest involves the impact of Sustainability and Places of Respite: Saudi Arabia Healthcare Environment and the Traditional and Modern Built Forms in Saudi Arabia. Fatma Jobran earned her M.S in Environmental/Interior Design in 2013 from Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. She honoured the outstanding academic record as an excellent candidate for the Honours College. After she moved to Texas in 2009, Fatma served as a faculty member of the school of Design at Taibah University in KSA in 2012 to present. In her professional career she served as a lecturer in King Abdul Aziz University - KSA 2005-2007. Early graduate work (MFA degree, 2005) was completed at King Abdul Aziz University. BA work was completed at the School of Fine Arts. Fatma Jobran honoured fifth times as the “outstanding achievements at Texas Tech University”, Government & Public Service Intern Program and scholarship offered by the Texas Tech University Office of the President, at Washington DC, Austin, and Huston (2009-2014).
Background: This study presents how comfortable lighting luminance in a waiting room can add more relaxation to patients before going to the (surgical operations) at the Orthodontist’s office. The objective of this study is to provide a full review of comfortable lighting luminance in the health care environment. This study proposes a new luminance system in an existing health care facility based on limitations presented in the literature review, suitable design alternatives, localized lighting, use of phototropism, and the use of wall washing. The methodology is based on case studies using behaviour and environmental conditions. Colour appearance, colour contrast, colour rendering, control, horizontal and vertical illuminance, and equipment are primary variables to consider when looking at quality and quantity of lighting. Introduction: The lighting in the waiting room and other rooms in the healthcare environment have a challenge according to evidence based design. Patients are very nervous when entering the waiting room as they are awaiting their operation. This healthcare facility includes a variety of seeing conditions and present many concerns and challenges for the lighting design of the waiting room Problem/Question: This study will focus on current findings and the use of Evidence Base Design (EBD) as extrapolated from this study to inform design decisions. In addition, this study addresses the impacts of the physical environmental change on people’s behaviour. Methods: The information gathered has been evaluated and structured using case studies from the literature review. The present case studies were analyzed to determine patients’ needs. Then, adjustments on existing waiting room lighting were made and the current plan was made according to lighting application and lighting calculation with a concentration on phototropism and patient stress relief. Finding: The findings of this study suggest the following: 1) A larger, low brightness source appears to be less distracting, 2) Human phototropism is an explanation of movement in a space using light. Using of ceiling mounted lighting is to clearly define the space and create a transparent room impression should not exceed the S/MH ratio. 3) The use of wall washing technique will create the impression of pleasantness when applied to the lobby area, and 4) The use of concentrated light on sculpture, flower, murals, and paintings will create the impression of pleasantness through wall washing in the lobby area and glare can be controlled by the shielding angle. The aforementioned findings will necessitate the following specifications: Anti-Glare Metal Halide Down lights, placed into the ceiling, at the lobby area, and above the desk area. Moreover, The study suggested using florescent lighting, it is a wide light distribution with high degree of glare control, the benefit of using a florescent lamp as following; 1) generates radiant energy, 2) most beneficial for plant prorogation, and 3) enhances vegetative and reproductive growth in many plants. In addition, Phototropism findings used lighting to: 1) direct human movement, 2) using wall washing and non-uniform lighting treatments to break up the space and provide a feeling of warmth and pleasantness. Conclusion: One of the problems that were noted in these cases is that hospitals do not want to spend funding on changing the lighting. The particular problems related to the design space were related to problems of not having much space according their needs. It is also necessary to show how best to furnish and make the space a less scary place for the visitors. Also lighting must be designed according to the lighting applications.
University of Gezira, Sudan
Daniel Tekie Ghebreselasie is an Eritrean Citizen, graduated his Medical studies and earned Degree of Doctor of Medicine from Latin America school of Medicine (ELAM), Cuba in 2009 at the Age of 26. He has recently completed his Masters studies in field of community medicine from University of Gezira, faculty of medicine in March, 2015. He is currently pursuing his PhD studies in field of Community Medicine at the University of Gezira, Sudan. As young junior doctor, he is always interested in research and publications. He has published three original articles in Gezira Journal of health science as lead author and presented an article in the Gezira first international Family & community medicine conference, under the theme“ Partnership & Integration towards comprehensive health care for families and communities” 26-28th, March, 2015, Wad-Medani city, Sudan. In Addition He has also Co-Authored an article in Journal of Eritrean Medical Association. He is so much interested in medical researches focusing mainly on Non-Communicable diseases.
The burden of non-communicable diseases is on the rise in middle and low income countries on top of the existing infectious diseases. Recently in Sudan NCDs accounted for a total of (44%) of the overall mortality. Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in the country, which hinder the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution & prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. This is a descriptive cross-sectional analytic community based study conducted from October to December, 2013 in Wad-Medani city, Gezira State, Sudan. In this house to house survey, data was collected using structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements & Blood pressure apparatus. A total of 380 individuals of age 30 years & above were selected for the study by stratified proportional random sampling technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows version (16.0). The distributions of the various categories of risk factors were identified. The prevalence of smoking for males & females were (18.4%) & (0.3%) respectively, alcohol consumption (3.9%), only among males, consumption of fruits and vegetables below adequate level (72.9%), physical inactivity (75.0%). This study showed Cigarette /tobacco use & personal documented history of NCDs were associated and was found highly statistically significant (p-value <0.005). Similarly there was a statistical significance between association of physical activity with both age & educational level (p-value of 0.003 & 0.011) respectively. Mean systolic & diastolic blood pressures were 135.5 mmHg & 85 mmHg respectively for both sexes. The prevalence of hypertension was (29.7%) on physical assessment for both sexes. Based on BMI criteria, (1.6%) were underweight, (35.5%) were overweight and (22.6%) were obese & (0.8%) were severely obese. The prevalence of central obesity measured by waist circumference revealed that almost a quarter (24.7%) and above half (51.5%) of study participants were having an increased and a substantial increased values respectively. In this study, association between physical inactivity and central obesity was found statistically significant (p-value=0.002). This study also found statistically significant association between personal and family history of NCDs (p-value=0.00).In conclusion, the magnitude of risk factors for non-communicable diseases is considerably high in the study population.
Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad del Bajío, Mexico
Maria Maldonado-Vega his graduate of Ph.D. in Science, specialization Toxicology has received his Ph.D. and Master of Science in Research and Advanced Studies Center-Politecnical National Institute (CINVESTAV-IPN) México, D.F. Research lines: Toxicology labor groups exposed to heavy metals. Environmental pollution by solid waste; currently works microbiological aspects of air quality and phytoremediation processes of industrial effluents. His research has several awards such as Prize 2006-2007 ADIAT. Technology transfer mode to companies PyME and Technical merit recognition. First award in the research occupational risk from 1999, 2000, 2001 y 2007 Health Sector Veracruz, The Mexican Association of Biochemistry, FESORMEX y FENASTAC. She has Development different projects research and technology, which have resulted in forum disclosure of more papers, technical report and technology transfer. Currently has 18 papers refereed journals and 20 internationally papers, the publication of two books by threshing’s on the subject of specialized footwear for diabetics, as wells as lead toxicology, books chapters heavy metals. Management studies thesis of undergraduate, master´s and Ph.D. She has participated with other research groups in short Ales School of Mines in France, The University of the Environment UFZ-Leipzig in Germany, in Mexico involved with biomedical researchers at the Institute of UNAM, CINVESTAV-IPN Mexico unit and Irapuato, also University of Guanajuato. She is serving as an editorial member of several reputed journal like Journal of Nuclear medicine & Radiation Therapy, Journal International Pollution, Medical Journals and Magazine of Biochemistry Education. She is a member of Mexican Society of Biochemistry and Member Research Ethics Committee.
The tanning process has preservation of the hide of the animal. The industrialization of animal skins corresponds in its great majority to the skin of bovines. Indoor the tanneries the presence of 11 contamination indicator species in the tanning work environment with pathogenic potential are the following: Bacterium pumilus; Bacterium subtilis; Bacterium cereus; Cladosporium lubricantis, Cladosporium cladosporioides; Penicillium commune; Penicillium echinulatum; Penicillium chrysogenum; Penicillium crustosum; Candida parapsilosis, and Candida albidus. The microorganisms could compromise the state of health of tanning workers due to their incidence, propagation and concentration. This work showed that samples of nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa taken from the tanners (the sentinel group) demonstrated a high burden of bacteria and yeasts, with values up to 76 × 107 CFU/ml for bacteria and 80 × 107 CFU/ml for yeasts, observing bacterial and fungal growth in all of the participants. The nasal-mucosa results of the second group of tanners and of the control group, in which the sample was taken at the clinical laboratory, confirmed the presence of bacteria and fungi previously observed in the first tanners group; however, the concentration was less with respect to the sentinel group of tanners, with values of 1.5 × 103 CFU/ml and 1.9 × 103 CFU/ml for bacteria and yeasts, respectively. In that prior work, the identification was carried out of bacteria, fungi, and yeasts. The bacterial families identified were Bacillaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Moraxellaceae, Nocardiopsaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Staphylococcaceae. The genera of fungi identified were mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are considered the most significant allergenic fungi in air, and these have been associated with adverse effects on human and animal health. The yeasts identified were Candida krusei and Candida glabrata, which have been associated with adverse effects on the health of immunosuppressed individuals
Southeast University, China
Dr. Chao’ major research fields are public health, social medicine, health Administration and hospital management. Recent researches focus on the elderly health management, project evaluation, community health service. The rapid increase in the elderly population not only greatly influences the development of the social economy, but also poses significant challenges to health care in China. Health management has been looked upon as a way to deal with these challenges. We evaluated the effects of community-based health management on the health of the elderly and conducted the evaluating methods research.
The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of community-based health management on elderly diabetics using a Markov model. A Markov decision model was used to simulate the natural history of diabetes. Data were obtained from our randomized trials of elderly with type 2 diabetes and from the published literature. One hundred elderly patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to either the management or the control group in a one-to-one ratio. The management group participated in a health management program for 18 months in addition to receiving usual care. The control group only received usual care. Measurements were performed on both groups at baseline and after 18 months. The Markov model predicted that for every 1000 diabetics receiving health management, approximately 123 diabetics would avoid complications, and approximately 37 would avoid death over the next 13 years. The results suggest that the health management program had a positive long-term effect on the health of elderly diabetics. The Markov model appears to be useful in health care planning and decision-making aimed at reducing the financial and social burden of diabetes.