Day 2 :
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, USA
Keynote: The global burden of disease, injuries, and risk factors in 195 countries; findings from the 2015 Global Burden of Disease, 1990-2015
Time : 09:30-10:05
Ali H Mokdad, PhD is the Director of Middle Eastern Initiatives and Professor of Global Health at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington. He started his career at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1990. He has published more than 350 articles and numerous reports and received several awards, including the Global Health Achievement Award for his work in Banda Aceh after the tsunami, the Department of Health and Human Services Honor Award for his work on flu monitoring, and the Shepard Award for outstanding scientific contribution to public health.
The Global Burden of Disease 2015 (GBD) is a systematic, scientific effort to quantify the comparative magnitude of health loss from all major diseases, injuries, and risk factors by age, sex, and population. We quantified a complete set of health loss metrics with uncertainty for 195 countries and territories, 11 of which—Brazil, China, India, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States—were analyzed at the subnational level. In addition to the traditional health metrics such as disease and injury prevalence and incidence, death numbers and rates, GBD provides several metrics to report results on health loss related to specific diseases, injuries and risk factors: years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), prevalence and prevalence rates for sequelae, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). We also report our findings by the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), developed as a summary measure of overall development based on estimates of lag dependent income per capita (LDI), average educational attainment over age 15 years, and total fertility rate (TFR). Life expectancy increased from 61.7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61.2-62.2) in 1980 to 71.8 years (71.2-72.4) in 2015. However, for some countries, life expectancy did not improve or declined. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) deaths, increased by 14.4% to 39.8 million deaths (38.5‒41.3 million) in 2015 while age-standardized rates decreased by 13.0% (9.7‒16.2%). By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardized death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined between 2005 and 2015. From 1990 to 2015, four risks – unsafe sanitation, household air pollution, childhood underweight, and childhood stunting – saw a decrease of more than 30%; further, such reductions in risk exposure were similar among men and women. Our study showed that age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the last 35 years with progress made at a faster pace in the majority of countries with high SDI.
Frost & Sullivan, Malaysia
Time : 10:05-10:40
Shalani Andria, the Transformational Health Industry Analyst at Frost & Sullivan is a subject matter expert in Asia Pacific digital health market with thought leadership covering broad range of sectors within the digital health market including Video Telemedicine, Mobile Health, Remote Patient Monitoring, Home Care, Healthcare IT, Healthcare Big Data Analytics, Healthcare Interoperability and Internet of Medical Things. Shalani has extensive experience in strategy consulting, merger & acquisition, and public-private partnerships. She has advised top telehealth vendors, healthcare IT vendors, medical device vendors, hospital groups, and ministries on disruptive technologies, business model innovation, and sustainable ecosystem. She has been quoted in multiple industry magazines and journals.
Asia-Pacific (APAC) is moving from centralized to decentralized care-delivery models, with the need for efficient healthcare services outside the hospital. There has been an increase in demand for remote patient monitoring (RPM) devices by both healthcare providers and consumers in the home but adoption and adherence is low. The major roadblock is funding for high-tech devices and care management platforms. Some of the key challenges include:
• Absence of sustainable business models due to under-developed healthcare regulations and reimbursement mechanisms
• Lack of an ecosystem strategy that includes sustainable partnerships between telecommunication providers, healthcare providers, insurance companies, governments or others for home monitoring.
Failure to address these challenges result in inability to monetize home health monitoring solutions, although the market is packed with unexplored opportunities. This presentation will highlight some innovative business models that address these issues, and educate stakeholders on how and why the models are successful.
- Infectious Disease and Prevention | Healthcare and Chronic Diseases
Frost & Sullivan, Malaysia
Bingol University, Turkey
Time : 11:00-11:30
Imran Aslan has done his four years Healthcare Education as Emergency Medical Technician at Batman Health Vocational High School between 1996 and 2000. Moreover, he has published more than 25 international articles at famous SSCI, ISI, etc., indexed journals and also a book named as “Healthcare Management: Optimization of Resources and Determining Success and Performance Factors” published in 2016.
The level of morale and motivation, motivation tools, variables determining job satisfaction, leadership styles and qualifications, promotions, awarding, preferences for business quality of life, business dissatisfaction, overall expectations or expectations in terms of professional development are main factors affecting both job life quality and motivation. Healthcare is a service oriented field need high motivation for better treatment and increasing satisfaction of patients. Bingöl city is located in East of Turkey and has a main government hospital providing main healthcare services to 106 thousand people in city center. To determine the job life quality and motivating factor affecting satisfaction, 109 surveys were applied to workers of hospital at third quarter of 2016. ANOVA method and descriptive statistic methods are used to find most critical factors affecting motivation. The results can be compared and generalized with other fields. Unfair promotions and effect of politician in healthcare are main dissatisfaction points.
Spiritual Center, Guinea
Title: Some diseases treatable by the traditional medicine of black africa if the diagnostic is precocently asked by conventional medicine
Time : 11:30-12:00
Sylvain haba Admission to Bachelor in 1984, orientation to school nurses 1985-88. 1989- 1997 Internship in a medical post in Sèbètèrè Gaoual Prefecture. 1992-1993 remote training on medical semology. In 1998 admitted to the public service test. 2004-2005 training in traditional medicine in DR Congo. Back Guinea in 2006 establishment of the Medico-Spiritual Center Tradi koumi Talitha (Marc5: 41-42) to (Labe) Guinea. 2008 Transfer of the center in Conakry.
Diabetes was defined, Diabetes or poly-polydipsic syndrome in modern medicine which refers to a syndrome characterized by an increase in urine production, necessarily accompanied by excessive thirst by traditional black healers as a disease of abundant urine, dry mouth, itching and visual impairment. In olden days The diagnosis was always made by a gathering of red ants (formica rufa) and bees (apis mellifera) on the urine emitted on an impermeable place in the morning when, in the evening, it was these two insects that alerted the patient and his entourage. It was not until the arrival of the Christian missionaries to define. Diabetes or poly-polydipsic syndrome in modern medicine which refers to a syndrome characterized by an increase in urine production, necessarily accompanied by excessive thirst.In research, it was noted that plants can help in the treatment of type 2 Recommendation diabeties.
1) Respect of the diet (without sugar), 2) Balanced food, 3) In sauce the leaves solanum nodiflora family solanaceous leaf 150 to 200g / day to prepare with the decoction of yilitigi 20 to 30g
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Time : 12:00-12:30
Chandrika Murugaiah from Malaysia And she is completed her graduation at 1Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Cholera, a severe form of gastroenteritis, is one of the most widespread diseases in developing countries. The mechanism of intestinal infection caused by V. cholerae O139 remains unclear. In order to explore some morphological aspects of its infection in the intestine including Peyer's patches, we investigated the V. cholerae O139 infection at intestinal site of the rabbit gut-loop model. The electron microscopic analysis revealed denuded mucosal surface with loss of microvilli and integrity of the surface epithelium. Infection of the intestine with V. cholerae O139 induces destruction of villi, microvilli and lining epithelium with exposure of crypts of Lieberkuhn.
King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, KSA
Title: The effect of career awareness on career and talent development self-efficacy and career barriers among nursing students
Time : 12:30-13:00
Ebtsam Aly AbouHashish has been promoted as an Assistant Professor of Nursing Management from Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt. She attained Doctorate of Nursing Adminstration in 2010, Master of Nursing Adminstration in 2006 and Bachelor of Nursing Science in 2001 from Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt. She teaches many courses for Under-graduates and Post-graduates, and participated in supervising many dissertations and thesis as an Academic Supervisor. She has published many research articles and two books internationally. She is intersested in quantitative and qualitative research in all areas of nursing management and partcipated as a Reviewer for Nursing Ethics Journal and always strives for excellence as an academic.
Background: There has been an increased emphasis on the importance of providing efficient and effective methods of career awareness, education, and knowledge for nursing students which could affect their talent and self-efficacy development and enable them to overcome the potential career-related obstacles and barriers.
Purpose: The aim of this study was two-fold; a) to investigate the effect of career awareness sessions on perceived career and talent development self-efficacy and career barriers among nursing students. b) To identify the nature of the relationship between career and talent development self-efficacy and career barriers.
Methods: A quasi-experimental research with one group, pre-test post-test design was conducted using a convenience sample of all nursing students (N=245) who enrolled in the second year of Technical Nursing Institute, Alexandria University and agreed to participate in the research study. The career awareness sessions were introduced to nursing students after obtaining ethical approval for the study. Career and Talent Development Self-Efficacy Scale and Career Barriers Inventory were proved valid and reliable to measure study variables pre and post awareness sessions.
Results: The present study indicated a significant effect of career awareness sessions on the study variables where career and talent development self-efficacy score of nursing students significantly increased. On the contrary, career barriers score significantly decreased after sessions (p<0.001). A significant negative correlation between career and talent development self-efficacy and career barriers was found. Also, career barriers can significantly predict 49.5% of career and talent development self-efficacy among nursing students (F=46.779, p<0.001).
Conclusion & Recommendations: Overall, increasing the career awareness of nursing students emerged as being effective in enhancing their career and talent development self-efficacy and decreasing career barriers. Nursing curricula should prepare nursing students and graduates by offering systematic and continuous career educational opportunities to assist them in choosing career paths that match their interests and professional roles.
- Young Research Forum
General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka
Title: Parental awareness of risk factors, recognition and first aid management of accidental foreign body aspiration in children aged 1-5 years in Dehiwala-Ratmalana area, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Time : 14:00-14:20
Dinithi samarakoon is from Srilanka and she completed her Graduation at General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka and now she is working as Faculty of Allied Health Sciences on Department of Nursing & Midwifery
Foreign Body Aspiration (FBA) is a common cause of respiratory emergency in early childhood and is associated with a high rate of airway distress. FBA peaks at the age of 1-2 years. Many cases of FBA can be preventable yet one of the main risk factors for FBA is a lack of knowledge regarding FBA of caregivers of children. It has been emphasized that public awareness should be increased. Less awareness of parents regarding risk items, risk factors, prevention methods, delay in identifying signs and symptoms of sudden FBA, and less awareness of First Aid Management are the major factors placing children at higher risk for FBA. The primary aim is to evaluate knowledge among parents in Dehiwala- Ratmalana Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas on FBA (i.e. the high risk items, risks factors), secondly to assess parental ability to recognize FBA, evaluate parental knowledge on implementing the first aid management and prevention of Foreign Body Aspiration. To find out whether there is any correlation with parental knowledge on FBA and parental level of education. Simple random sampling method was used regardless of parity, attending routine Child Welfare Clinics (CWCs) during working day mornings and afternoons across the 12 CWCs in Dehiwala and Ratmalana MOH areas. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from 384 fathers, mothers and primary care givers (guardians) who had a child of age 1-5 years. Among 384 parents who participated in the study, 99 cases had a history of FBA with the highest incidence amongst the 1-2 year age group. The overall knowledge of the parents on FBA was average 226 (58.9%); similarly parental knowledge on prevention was also average 291 (75.8%), while the majority had a good knowledge on first aid management 230 (59.9%). The majority of parents had shown a good awareness on risk factors related to FBA as well. As per the results the most parents in this sample had either a good or average knowledge on the risk factors, recognition, prevention and treatment of FBA. In this study population parental overall knowledge on FBA was average. Their knowledge was mainly acquired from community midwives. There was no association between education levels with awareness of risk of FBA, awareness of recognition, awareness of prevention, and awareness of first aid management. Similarly a significant relationship was not found in between education and over all awareness on FBA.
Southeast University, China
Jiayi Gu has completed his Master of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and currently is a PhD candidate. He is mainly engaged in the related research of health management for the elderly. He and his group have recently carried out a study of health management program for the elderly for a period of two years. The program encouraged a healthy lifestyle and the uptake of preventative care among the elderly. In this study, the effect of health management for the elderly was evaluated through statistical methods.
Statement of the Problem: Aging is a challenge for China. Health management is regarded as an effective way to improve the health of the elderly. However, relevant studies and evidences are still lacking in China. The purpose of this study is to conduct a randomized controlled trial and used Bayesian approach to evaluate the effectiveness of health management on the health of the elderly.
Methodology: A randomized, controlled trial was undertaken and the sample was from the community-dwelling elderly (≥ 60 years). Intervention group received a health management program, which included a series of health promotion activities. Concurrent control group received usual care. The duration of this trial lasted 24 months. The main outcomes were assessed through a multi-dimensional instrument designed for the elderly at baseline and 6, 18, 24 months. Bayesian linear mixed models were used for analyzing the effect of health management.
Findings: The results showed that there was a significant improvement per month in intervention group on the following dimensions: body function, emotional personality, memory function, social adaptability and general health. The control group showed a significant decrease per month on the following dimensions: body function, emotional personality, memory function and general health. According to sensitivity analyses, the results from Bayesian linear mixed model were robust.
Conclusion & Significance: This study demonstrated that health management was expected to improve physical, mental health and social adaptability of the community-dwelling elderly when it was specific and tailored according to the personal need.
Southeast University, Nanjing, China
Man Zhang has completed his Master of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and currently is a PhD candidate. He is mainly engaged in the related research of healthmanagement for the elderly. He and his group have recently carried out a study of health management program for the elderly for a period of two years. Theprogram encouraged a healthy lifestyle and the uptake of preventative care among the elderly. In this study, the effect of health management for the elderly wasevaluated through statistical methods.
Background: As ageing population in the world is rapidly increasing, age-dependent chronic diseases epidemics. Nearly 30% of the total disease burden is attributable to health conditions among those aged 60 years and above. 60% of chronic diseases
are caused by unhealthy lifestyles. WHO urgently needs to find an affordable,accessible, high-quality and age-friendly health promoting interventions for the old.
Objective: To investigate the effect of integrated health management on modified lifestyle behaviors among older people.
Participants: 736 adults aged 60 years and above, without any cognitive disorder, were selected from community health servicecenter in Nanjing from March 2013 to March 2016.
Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned into management and control group. The management group received careintegrated individual health management with community health management model.
Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes include assessment of healthy lifestyle scores of 18 to 36 months. Value of 1 wasgiven to different categories including non-smoking, physically active, moderate alcohol use, healthy weight and high diet quality.
Results: Longitudinal quantitative and qualitative data on 702 (management=388; control=314) participants were analyzed usingrepeated measurements and using Generalized Estimation Equation model. The number of new ones in management group fornon-smoking, physically not inactive, moderate alcohol consumption, diet habits score≥13 and health weight were 18, 77, 26, 178and -6. Five healthy lifestyle scores rose 0.73 points in the management group and -0.38 in the control group. The most importantfinding is integrated health management has a cluster effect.
Conclusions: Our findings support the view that integrated health management model can promote the elderly modifiable lifestyle.
Ankara University, Turkey
Title: The relationship between organizational trust and personal initiative: A research on health care workers
Time : 15:00-15:20
Pınar Gunes is pursuing her graduation at Ankara University, Turkey.
Statement of the Problem: The matter of trust is very important in health services produced jointly by health workers. The levelof confidence of worker who actively engage in service delivery to each other can influence service delivery. In addition, takingan initiative role is also very important in terms of effective and efficient health services. Workers actively performing in healthservice delivery and creating value behaviors in terms of patients and organizations can affect the service output and effectivenessand efficiency of the institution.
Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the organizational trust level and status of personal initiative of health workers andrelationship between organizational trust and personal initiative.
Methodology: The survey method used in the study. The sample of research consists of 400 health workers. The data collectedfrom health workers in a hospital in Izmir city with the help of face to face survey method by using organizational trust and
personal initiative scales. The data obtained from the study subjected to appropriate analyzes with the SPSS 20.0 program and thehypotheses tested with appropriate methods.
Conclusion: The power of health care depends largely on health care workers. Workers having a high level of confidence andpersonal initiative in healthcare delivery may increase the quality of service and patient satisfaction. Conclusions that cancontribute to the field in terms of health services will be presented in the light of results and various suggestions will be presented.
- Poster Presentations
Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad del Bajío, México
M Maldonado-Vega received her PhD in Science, specializing in Toxicology and Master of Science from Research and Advanced Studies Center, PolitecnicalNational Institute (CINVESTAV-IPN) México. Her research lines are toxicology labor groups exposed to heavy metals and environmental pollution by solid waste.She currently works on microbiological aspects of air quality and phytoremediation processes of industrial effluents. She has developed different projects inresearch and technology, which have resulted in forum disclosure of more papers, technical reports and technology transfer. Currently, she has 18 papers in
refereed journals and 20 international papers, and two books published on the subject, specialized footwear for diabetics, as well as toxicology, and books chapters
published on heavy metals. She has participated with other research groups in short Ales School of Mines in France, The University of the Environment UFZ-Leipzigin Germany, in Mexico, involved with biomedical researchers at the Institute of UNAM, CINVESTAV-IPN Mexico unit and Irapuato, also University of Guanajuato.She is serving as an Editorial Member of several reputed journal like Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy, Journal International Pollution, other Medicaljournals and Magazine of Biochemistry Education.
Pollution by fine dust from a recycling plant has an impact on living things. The adaptation of microorganisms is a biological alternative with a view to its biotechnological application in the treatment of industrial waste like the slags of a lead recycler. The present work was to isolate and characterize in vitro rhizospheric bacteria from surrounding soil to a Pb (NO3)2 tolerant lead recycling plant (Pb) and with capacity to produce indole compounds-indole acetic acid (AIA) and of sideróforos by means of the techniques of Salkowski and CAS-agar, respectively. We also identify bacterial isolates through the 16S rRNA gene. Ten strains tolerated concentrations between 0.6 and 1.8 mM Pb (NO3)2, of which seven strains had AIA production of up to 60 μg mL-1 and five strains had siderophore production of 0.02 to 0.054 μg mL-1. Qualitatively, the Streptomyces sp isolates presented a more intense orange halo than the Curtobacterium sp and Arthrobacter sp isolates, positive reaction indicator of siderophores production, similar to the positive control of Burkholderia cepacea. The production of siderophores of the hydroxamate type by the isolates L2, L48, L67, L138 and L23 was variable from 0.02-0.054 μg mL-1. The conclutions that there are bacterial strains associated to the rhizosphere of the vegetation cover around the recycling plant of Pb with a high potential to be used in phytoremediation processes. Tests of Ricinus communis plus inoculated with Streptomices sp and Bacillus sp. in industrial slag leave guidelines to address an alternative in industrial waste.
Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan
Hui-Chuan Liao1 is an associate professor in the college of nursing, Fooyin University, who has completed her Master in Nursing Science from Penn State University. She has taught the long-term care nursing for more than 20 years as well as conducted the practicum teaching more than ten years both in the elderly and psychiatric settings. Currently she and her teaching team members have developed the simulation scenarios and skills of the long-term care course for the RN-BSN students. She has published approximately 10 articles relate to long-term care and simulation teaching as well as 10 conference papers in the domestic and foreign areas.
The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a medical-labor-intensive critical care department equipped with specialized instruments, where most of these patients undergo endo-tracheal intubation. ICU is the strange and closed environment of providing 24 hours service for patients and research has indicated that 16-85% of ICU patients would have the delirium problems. However, if the healthcare professionals could identify the delirium problems of ICU patients earlier, they could prevent the serious consequences of disorientation, confusion, non-cooperation, unusual or irritable behaviors due to delirium problems. Consequently, the death rate of ICU patients with delirium could be decreased and their quality of lives might be increased. Additionally, the benefits of early detecting delirium problems of ICU patients included less nursing care needs, hospitalized day, mortality, but their functions could be increased. Nevertheless, the frequent interventions for delirium problems of ICU patients were sedation and restriction. For instance, in our liver ICU the patients often have the delirium problems by using the different sedations such as PCA, morphine, Haldol, Vena, Dormicum+Fentanyl, Valium with restriction; however, the delirium problems were still existed. Therefore, this study is to explore the delirium problems and approach methods of liver ICU patients in one southern medical center. Purposive samples included one head nurse and one nursing practitioner who will observe, assess, and record the delirium problems and approach methods of 20-30 liver ICU patients following the assessment scale of delirium patients for liver ICU patients developed by the research team. However, the consistency of both evaluators for the assessment scale of delirium patients will be built before conducting the assessment. Based on the information from the assessment scale of delirium patients, the research team would analyze the pattern and trend of approach methods for the liver ICU patients with the purpose of identifying the standardized care protocol. It is expected that the standardized care protocol of the liver ICU delirium patients could provide as the reference for the future clinical guidelines.
Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan
The present study explored the life stories of nurses caring for patients with terminal illness. In this narrative study, five nurseswho cared for patients with terminal illness were enrolled using a semi-structured guideline for data collection. Each nurse was individually interviewed twice. The first data analysis was based on the integrated content model reported by Lieblich, Mashiach, and Zilber (2008) for analyzing all data in context. The second data analysis was conducted following the category
content model, which classifies contextualized experiences according to specific categories. The nurses were women aged 28–41years, with various religious beliefs and no chronic diseases; their family members had undergone hospitalization experiencesand had been enrolled in spirituality-related training courses; the nurses had a total average nursing experience of 12.5 years.The study identified five life themes, namely: maintaining rightness and hating evil in the true moment; wandering because of the lack of emotional bonds to homes; release from spiritual imprisonment to nirvana; a heart that contains no desire and that releases emotions as if they were water; and the enjoyment of spiritual traveling when boundaries are erased. Furthermore, the results revealed that the nurses shared their life stories with other nurses for promoting concepts of and passion for spirituality, and continued disseminating their stories and transforming their professional growth
National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan
Ju-Li Ku currently is a PhD student in the Department of Chinese Literature, National Kaohsiung Normal University, and she has worked as the senior lecturer ofChinese Literature in the R.O.C. Military Academic for more than 25 years. She has involved into the studies of Su Shi’s whole life regarding his philosophy and Chinese medicines. She hopes to transform the Su Shi’s body-mind-spirit self-healing menu into the health care system for improving the patients’ health based on his own autobiography.
The purpose and value of this paper is to learn the way of body-mind and spirit self-healing while people face the hardships of life. special attention to the problems of disease prevention and treatment of the underprivileged, and often sent medicine to them. This article explores a demoted official to feel self-healing during planting medicinal herb, gaining medicine and decocting medicinal herb. In addition to medical treatment of the disease, the mind and self-healing power ahs more impact on the people . While using medicine to heal people,if we use motivated talk with then they can recover very easy. Through the study of health care professionals could consider how to merge the body-mind-soul of self-healing of medicine thought and regimen into improving the quality of patient’s care.
National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Ching-Liang Chu has completed his PhD from National Defense Medical College/Academia Sinica, Taiwan and Post-doctoral studies from School of Medicine, UCSF, CA, USA. He is the Associate Professor of Graduate Institute of Immunology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer of more than 20 reputed journals.
The inhibitory effect of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing adapters DAP12 and FceRI g-chain (FcRg) has been found in many immune functions; however, the role of these adapters is not known in C-type lectin receptor (CLRs) response. In this report, we identified that FcRg, but not DAP12, could negatively regulate the Dectin-1 responses in dendritic cells (DCs). Loss of FcRg or both DAP12 and FcRg enhanced the maturation and cytokine production in DCs upon Dectin-1 activation compared to normal cells, whereas DCs lacking only DAP12 showed little changes. In addition, increment of recall T-cell proliferation was observed in FcRg-deficient mice. Examining the Dectin-1 signaling, we revealed that the activations of several signaling molecules were augmented in FcRg-deficient DCs stimulated with Dectin-1 ligands. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the association of phosphatases SHP-1 and PTEN with FcRg may contribute to the negative regulation of FcRg in Dectin-1 activation in DCs. These results extend the inhibitory effect of ITAM-containing adapters to Dectin-1 response in immune functions, even though Dectin-1 contains an ITAM-like intracellular domain. According to the role of Dectin-1 in responding to microbes and tumor cells, our finding may have applications in the development of vaccine and cancer therapy.
National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan
Kuan-Yin Shen has received his PhD from Graduate Institute of Life Science of National Defense Medical Center in 2014. He accepted Post-doctoral fellowship in National Health Research Institutes in 2016. He has his expertise in the flied of Tumor Immunology to explore the mechanism of antigen processing for tumor vaccine development. To establish novel approach for immunotherapeutic tumor vaccines, he investigates the immune responses induced by lipo-immunogens, recombinant lipoproteins and lipo-peptides.
Cross-presentation is an important function of Dendritic Cells (DCs), which present exogenous antigens on MHC class I molecules to prime Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The effects of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 triggering on the cross-presentation of exogenous antigens by DCs remain unclear. Here, we used synthetic di-palmitoylated peptides and TLR2 agonist-conjugated peptides as models to elucidate the mechanisms of TLR2-mediated cross-presentation. We observed that the internalization of di-palmitoylated peptides by Bone Marrow-Derived DCs ( BMDCs) was promoted by TLR2 via clathrinmediatedendocytosis. The administration of these di-palmitoylated peptide-pulsed BMDCs eliminated established tumors through TLR2 signaling. We further investigated that the induction of antigen-specific CTL responses and tumor regression by di-palmitoylated peptides was transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) independent. Moreover, presentation of di-palmitoylated peptides by MHC class I molecules were inhibited in the presence of an endosomal acidification inhibitor (chloroquine) or a cathepsin S inhibitor (Z-FL-COCHO). The endocytosed di-palmitoylated peptide also passed rapidly from early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1)-positive endosomes to RAS-related GTP-binding protein 7 (Rab7)-associated late endosomes compared with their non-lipidated counterparts. Furthermore, we found that di-palmitoylated peptide-upregulated Rab7 expression correlated with antigen presentation via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway. Both JNK and ERK signaling pathway are required
for upregulation of Rab7. In summary, our data suggest that TLR2-mediated cross presentation occurs through the upregulation
of Rab7 and a TAP-independent pathway.
Mackay Medical College, Taiwan
En-Chih Liao is an Assistant Professor in Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan. His major degree is PhD from National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. His specialty is in fields of Microbiology, Basic and Clinical Immunology, Tropical Medicine, and Translation Medicine. His research interest focuses on the house dust mite allergen characterization, animal model of bronchial asthma, and biomedical wafer of diagnostic development. Special honors for him are 2011 Seoul International Invention Fair (SIIF) (Gold Prize), (Russian House Award) and 2014, 11th National Innovation Award.
Tropomyosin was found to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between shrimp and dust mite, and measurement of tropomyosin specific IgE was reported superior to shrimp for predicting clinically allergic reaction. The aim of this study is to identify the cross-reactivity of tropomyosin among shrimp-Pen m 1 and dust mite-Der p 10. A total of 120 subjects were enrolled in this study: 60 children (<18 yr), 30 middle-age adults (18-65 yr) and 30 elderly adult (>65 yr). In the group of middle-age adult,
there were four non-shrimp exposure vegetarians recruited for further analysis. The specific IgE for shrimps and house dust mites were measured using automated microfluidic-based immunoassay system (BioIC®) diagnostic assay. Two recombinant allergens of dust mite (rDer p10) and shrimp (rPen m1) were generated to investigate their cross-reactivity. The cross-reactivity between shrimps and mites were determined by basophil histamine release (BHR) before and after allergen absorption. The results showed that there were more children sensitive to mite (91.7%) than to shrimp (28.3%). In the group of middle-age adult, the mite
sensitivity rate was decreased to 56.6% and shrimp sensitivity rate increased to 73.3%. In the elderly adult, the mite sensitivity rate was decreased down to 46.6%, however the shrimp sensitivity remained constant (73.3%). The rates of cosensitivity to shrimp and mite were 26.6% in children group, 56.6% in middle-age adult group and 43% in elderly adult group. A total of 45 subjects who sensitized to both shrimp and mite were recruited for BHR assay. Similar results were observed in the BHR assay, the content of histamine stimulated by mites (69.3%) was significantly higher than shrimp (48.4%) in the children group. Converse results were showed in the elderly adult group, shrimp-stimulated BHR (61.0%) was significantly higher than mite (44.5%). In the inhibition BHR assay, the results showed the shrimp-stimulated BHR could be decreased significantly by absorption with Der p 10 in the
children group. The mite-stimulated BHR could be absorbed significantly with Pen m1 in the elderly adult group. In the inhibition assay of Western blot and BHR, the positive IgE responses to shrimp could be absorbed by Der p10 from vegetarians’ sera. It indicated that the IgE positive response to shrimp of the vegetarians was originated from the cross-reactivity of tropomyosin from the dust mite-Der p10.
Sogang University, Korea
Sung Woong Jang is a Graduate student of Sogang University, Seoul, Korea and is studying CD4 T cell differentiation in Molecular Immunology Lab of Sogang University, under Prof. Gap Ryol Lee.
Autoimmune diseases are controlled by the balance between T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which promote inflammatory reactions, and regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress effector T cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this balance are unclear. Here, we showed that casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical determinant of the Th17/Treg cell development. Inhibition of CK2 with a specific inhibitor, CX-4945, and shRNA-mediated knockdown both suppressed Th17 cell differentiation but reciprocally promoted Treg cell differentiation in vitro. Moreover, orally treated CX-4945 ameliorated symptoms of experimental autoimmune
encephalomyelitis (EAE) and inhibited Th17 cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). Mechanistically, CX-4945 blocked the IL-6/STAT3 and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.